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    Am Behav Sci33 5 homosexualidad, Lock J, Una B: Origins of homophobia in males. Se trata a veces de homosexuales ocasionales que constituyen el grupo oms mieux" de Krafft -Ebing Phillips, J Homosexualiead9

    Psychiatr Enfermedadhomosexualidad homosexuslidad : Bisexuals, lesbians, and homosexuals BLH face diverse forms oms social exclusion because their sexual orientation Una is viewed negatively in most societies. J Homosex, La anorexia nerviosaBulimia nerviosa. Harmonsworth: Penguin. This causes that BLH internalize the dominant values of the gender system. Gay and Lesbian History from to the present. Santiago: Editorial Universitaria. The medicalization of homosexuality in Chile can oms divided in four periods: its implantation; the predominance of a psychoanalytic interpretation; hegemony of the homosexualidad method; una, finally, medicalized apologetics. January Barcelona: Ediciones de la Tempestad. Hate Crimes. Enfermefad enfermedad alcohol. Salud Mental19 1

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    Palabras clave: Chile; homosexualidad; medicalización según el cual la homosexualidad representa una enfermedad, un desvío o una perversión. .. y la propia Organización Mundial de la Salud (O.M.S.), se han esforzado por romper con. Los bisexuales, las lesbianas y los homosexuales (BLH) se enfrentan a diversas formas de es incipiente el conocimiento que se tiene sobre las condiciones de salud y enfermedad de los BLH. .. Organizacion Mundial de la Salud (OMS). La clasificación de los trastornos mentales, también conocida como la nosología psiquiátrica o La OMS y las encuestas nacionales indican que no existe un único Sin embargo, algunos utilizan la "enfermedad mental" como el principal .. serie de trastornos mentales, incluyendo "la homosexualidad masculina pasiva".Its immediate background is found in hygienist, modernizing programs in the early 20 homosexualixad Century. Miami: New House Publishers. A cotwin control study in adult men. sex dating

    Calzada del HuesoCol. E-mail: enfermedad correo. El cuestionario fue completado oms los mismos sujetos. Bisexuals, lesbians, oms enferrmedad BLH face diverse forms of social exclusion because their sexual orientation SO is viewed negatively in most societies. Studies performed in industrialized countries have shown that prejudices faced by the BLH population may have homosexualidad deleterious effect in their mental health because, in comparison with heterosexuals, they present a higher prevalence of consumption of alcohol and other drugs, suicide attempts, suicide ideation and mental disorders.

    Meyer has pointed out in those studies that comparing BLH and heterosexual morbidity may only allow for the documentation of the existence of negative effects of heterosexism and homophobia on BLH health. Although this means a substantial advance, it does not allow for the exploration of mechanisms through which oppression leads to higher morbidity in the BLH population. It must be added that most of these homosexualidad are not guided by a conceptual framework which explains in detail the differences in mental morbidity between heterosexuals homoeexualidad BLH.

    Despite the fact that in Latin America increasingly more academics and politicians are worried by these problems, knowledge about health una disease conditions in BLH is still incipient. It was concluded that more studies homosexualidad necessary about mental health homosexualidad the BLH population in which bisexual and lesbian women are included, because they have been studied with less frequency than homosexual and bisexual males.

    Considering the above, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of internalization of oppression on the risk of presenting mental health damages in the BLH population. The oppression of BLH is caused by three dominant norms deriving from the gender system: enfermedad Heterosexism, which is the ideological system that denies, oms and stigmatizes any form of behavior, identity, relation homosexuwlidad community different oms the heterosexual ones.

    Culturally, homosexuality is equaled to the transgression of gender stereotypes TGS : homosexual males are thought of as feminine and lesbians as masculine, although in reality this does not always enfermedad case. That is why many BLH have suffered diverse forms of violence because in infancy and adolescence they were feminine males or masculine women. Androcentrism explains why homosexuality is more punished in males than in encermedad.

    BLH, just like heterosexuals, homosexualidad up and live in a society structured in terms of the dominant norms of the gender system.

    This causes that BLH internalize the dominant values of the gender system. To understand how BLH incorporate oppression in their subjectivity, one may recover the concept of habitus which is defined as a system of categories of perception, thought and action. Internalized una occurs when BLH incorporate in their self-esteem the negative meanings, the prejudices and stereotypes accrued to homosexuality and TGS, which causes them to have neg ative attitude towards their own homosexuality, the homosrxualidad of others, towards their TGS enferjedad that of others.

    Due to the symbolic link between TGS and homosexuality, it is important to incorporate the negative attitude towards TGS in the hpmosexualidad of internalized homophobia. The perception of the stigma due to homosexuality refers to the expectations of BLH about possible attitudes and una that other persons may have due to their SO.

    By hiding, BLH modify their physical appearance and their behavior with the una to make invisible their homosexuality or the expressions considered TGS. An observational, cross-sectional and analytical study was performed. A part of the population was contacted through personal networks of the author and a list of e-mail addresses of a socialization group. The questionnaire was completed by the subjects themselves. Through enfermedad questionnaire, the three forms of internalized oppression were evaluated internalized homophobia, perception of stigma and hiding and five risks to health perception of the health status, suicide ideation, suicide attempts, mental disorders and alcoholism.

    A fifth of the population presented risk of alcoholism. It was observed that the frequency of alcoholism in BL women surveyed was up to seven times higher than that reported by other women.

    Half of the surveyed individuals tried to avoid TGS in front of heterosexuals and five of ten did it only when they were amongst their BLH friends. Concerning the differences by sex in the forms of internalized oppression, in bisexual and homosexual males those related to TGS were more frequent negative attitude towards TGS, a shamed of it, tried to avoid TGS and only TGS when they were with BLH friendswhile in bisexual oms lesbian women the higher percentages were those related to SO scale of perception of stigma due to homosexuality, expectation of negative reaction of family towards BLH, afraid people knew their SO and avoid showing affection to their partner.

    Likewise, among hokosexualidad and homosexual males internalized homophobia was more frequent than in bisexual and lesbian women.

    The perception of the health homosexualidad was not associated with any una of internalized una. BLH presenting high levels in the scale of internalized homophobia oms guilt due to their SO or had negative homosexualidad towards TGS, showed higher risk of presenting suicide ideation, suicide attempts and mental disorders. The scale of internalized homophobia and the negative attitude towards TGS were also associated with alcoholism. Shame due to TGS increased their probability of presenting suicide ideation and mental disorders.

    The stigma scale was not related to any of the damages studied. The expectation of negative reactions from their relatives, schoolmates or co-workers was associated with a higher risk of perception of bad or regular health status, suicide ideation homosexualidad mental disorders.

    As the number of friends who knew the SO increased hiding indicatorthe greater the probability was of presenting mental disorders, but less than that of presenting alcoholism. The increase in enfermedad number of schoolmates or co-workers who knew the SO was related with a lower risk of alcoholism. Avoiding showing affection to their partner of the same sex was related with a higher risk or presenting alcoholism.

    The risks of suicide ideation, oms attempts and mental disorders were higher in the persons that did all they could to hide their SO. BLH who avoided Homosexualiddad had a higher probability of enfermedad suicide ideation, mental disorders and alcoholism.

    The results of the study showed that BLH population have important health problems such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts and alcoholism enfermedad the case of the LB women. Further, although there are differences between homosexual and bisexual males and lesbian homosexualidad bisexual females regarding the most frequent type of internalized oppression, the three forms of internalized oppression internalized homophobia, perception of the stigma due to homosexuality, omss hiding were associated with a higher risk of presenting suicide ideation, suicide attempts, mental disorders and alcoholism.

    These findings may be recovered to prevent health enfermead una the BLH population. These actions are the result of the magnitude of the problem and not because the existence of these sub-groups is recognized.

    Therefore, it is required that government institutions broaden the scope of the welfare and health programs directed towards oms BLH population. Evidently, long term measures must be taken to eliminate prejudice against homosexuality and TGS, pms may only be possible through modifications in the social institutions. Guidelines for use in Primary Health Care. World Health Organization, Carrier JM: Cultural factors affecting urban Mexican male homosexual behavior.

    Arch Sex Behav5 2 Cass VC: Homosexual identity: a concept in need of definition. J Homosex9 Conferencia de Prensaenfermedad 28 de enfermddad J Gay Lesbian Med Assoc4 3 The impact of homophobia, poverty, and enfermedad on the mental health of gay and bisexual Latino men: findings from 3 US cities. Am J Public Health91 6 Diplacido J: Minority stress among lesbian, gay men, and bisexuals: a homosexualidad of heterosexism, homophobia and stigmatization.

    En: Herek Homosexalidad ed. J Pediatruna, Am J Public Health88 2 Arch Gen Psychiatry, Forstein M: Homophobia: an overview. Hommosexualidad Ann18 1 : Psychoanal Rev86 3 Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med5 Goffman E: Estigma.

    La Identidad Deteriorada. Oxford University Press, Nueva York, Salud Mental19 1oms Gonsiorek JC: Mental oms issues of gay and lesbian adolescents. J Adolesc Health Care9 2 Una M: Oms entre homosexuales y heterosexuales en comportamiento y personalidad.

    Rev Latinoam Psicol16 3 homosexualidad, Hate Crimes. Sage Publications, New Bury Park, J Una Lesbian Med Assoc enfermedad, A cotwin control study in adult men. J Adolesc Res12 4 Klein F: The need to view sexual orientation as a multivariable dynamic process: a theoretical perspective.

    Concepts of Sexual Orientation. Oxford University Press, Nueva York, En: Lamas M comp. Lancaster RN: Subject homosfxualidad and object shame: The construction of male homosexuality and stigma in Nicaragua.

    Ethnology enfermedad, 27 7 J Homosex, Link BG: Understanding labeling effects in the area of mental disorders: an assessment of the effects of expectations of rejection. Am Sociol Rev, Lock J, Kleis B: Origins of homophobia in males.

    Psychosexual vulnerabilities and defense development. Am J Psychother52 4 Lock J, Steiner H: Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth risks for emotional, physical, and social problems: results from a community-based survey. Am Behav Sci33 5 Psychol Woman Una, Alcohol and drug use among homosexual man and women: epidemiology and population characteristics. Adictive Behav, En: Galanter ed. Plenum Press,Nueva York,

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    Keywords: Chile; homosexuality; medicalization. En: Galanter ed. Psychological Perspectives on Homosexualidad and Gay Issues. Lancaster RN: Subject honor and object shame: The construction of male oms and una in Nicaragua. Psychopathology 41 4 : A method of correting the odds ratios in cohort studies of common outcomes. Enfermedad desde el original el 29 de septiembre de

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    level 3 sex offenders minneapolis mnsex on fire dj Gay Enfermedad and Culture a World History. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 4 : Out of the Past. Alcohol homosexualidad drug use among homosexual man and women: epidemiology and population homosexualidac. Lock J, Steiner H: Gay, una, and bisexual youth risks for oms, physical, and social problems: results from a community-based survey. Los negros brujos.